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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
CAC061801 RR
Question Submitted
June 18, 2020
Date Completed
July 13, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Clinical/Acute Care
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
CAC061801 RR
Question Submitted
June 18, 2020
Date Completed
July 13, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Clinical/Acute Care
Key Findings
There are currently no validated pediatric triaging scored for COVID
Several US states have pandemic plans, and some pediatric specific for triage and scarce resource allocation
A number of pandemic plans include the use of PELOD-2 either in isolation or in combination with a mortality prognosis (survival > 1 year, death within 5 years despite successful treatment, death within 1 year despite successful treatment for ICU triage
While some states do not have pediatric-specific triage criteria, they do list young age as a prioritization category
Several sources discuss the ethics of scarce resource allocation and pediatric hospitals
Most recommend using a prioritization scale to save the most lives with the least resources vs. “first come, first serve” methods
Category
Healthcare Services
Administration
Subject
Pediatrics
Triage
Acute Care
Population
All Pediatrics
Priority Level
Level 5 completed within 2 weeks
Cite As
Badea, A; Groot, G; Howell-Spooner, B; Dalidowicz, M. What are the pediatric triage protocols implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic, other pandemics, or in other resource-scarce situations? 2020 Jul 13; Document no.: CAC061801 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 23 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
CAC061802 RR
Question Submitted
June 18, 2020
Date Completed
July 21, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Clinical/Acute Care
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
CAC061802 RR
Question Submitted
June 18, 2020
Date Completed
July 21, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Clinical/Acute Care
Key Findings
· Key principles for the development of triage scoring systems are 1. Urgency 2. Survival 3. Likelihood of rapid benefit · Triage algorithms should be transparent and accessible, developed by teams with multiple perspectives/expertise · When all factors are equal, allocation should proceed by random/lottery assignment · Must balance egalitarian and utilitarian ideologies – providing equitable access while also providing the greatest benefit to the greatest number of people
Category
Healthcare Services
Administration
Subject
Ethics
Pediatrics
Triage
Acute Care
Population
All Pediatrics
Priority Level
Level 5 completed within 2 weeks
Cite As
Badea, A; Radu, L; Hansen, G; Dalidowicz, M; Howell-Spooner, B. What are the ethical principles that underlie pediatric triage protocols? 2020 Jul 21; Document no.: CAC061802 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 24 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC072102 RR
Question Submitted
July 27, 2020
Date Completed
July 31, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC072102 RR
Question Submitted
July 27, 2020
Date Completed
July 31, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
· Children and adolescents (0 to 18 years) contributed 1- 10% of laboratory confirmed cases of COVID-19 globally. · Children have been reported to have milder symptoms of COVID-19 and have shown better prognosis as compared to adults. · Severe cases presenting as a multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has been reported in some pediatric cases of COVID-19. Many of these children meet the criteria for complete or incomplete Kawasaki disease, but different clinical presentations of this inflammatory disorder are being reported. · Underlying medical conditions and comorbidities such as such as sickle cell disease, immunocompromised condition, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and asthma have been associated with severity and complications from COVID-19 infection in pediatric patients. · Although rare, death from COVID-19 in children have been reported, with a case fatality rate of less than 0.5%.
Category
Epidemiology
Subject
Pediatrics
Natural History
Symptoms
Transmission
Population
All Pediatrics
Priority Level
Level 5 completed within 2 weeks
Cite As
Asamoah, G; Muhajarine, N; Dalidowicz, M; Ellsworth, C; Howell-Spooner, B. What is the disease progression and epidemiology of COVID-19 in pediatric populations? 2020 Jul 27; Document no.: EOC072102 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 17 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC070201v2 RR
Question Submitted
July 2, 2020
Date Completed
August 14, 2020
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC070201v2 RR
Question Submitted
July 2, 2020
Date Completed
August 14, 2020
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
EOC
Updated Key Findings
AUGUST 7th UPDATE: No new studies examining secondary attack rates of pediatric index cases were found. Studies continue to suggest low transmission from pediatric cases, and high proportion of pediatric cases being asymptomatic to mildly symptomatic.
Key Findings
· Pediatric cases of COVID-19 constitute between 1% to 10% of all confirmed cases of COVID-19; variation exists by jurisdiction. · Few case reports exist of confirmed child-to-other transmission. Contact tracing studies suggest that children are unlikely to be transmitters of the disease. Households are the most likely environments for transmission. · A recent large South Korean contact tracing study however (in pre-print) found that household COVID-19 transmission rates for children age 10-19 were significantly higher than in adults; transmission rates for children age 0-9 were relatively low.
Category
Infection Prevention and Control
Epidemiology
Subject
Pediatrics
Transmission
Symptoms
Natural History
Priority Level
Level 5 completed within 2 weeks
Cite As
Sulaiman, F; Groot, G; Muhajarine, N; Dalidowicz, M; Miller, L. What is the transmissibility and epidemiology of COVID-19 in children and adolescents? 2020 Aug 14; Document no.: EOC070201v2 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 12 p. (CEST rapid review report)
Review History
EOC070201 RR: July 22, 2020
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
PH030801 RR
Question Submitted
March 8, 2021
Date Completed
March 30, 2021
Status
6. Cancelled
Research Team
Public Health
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
PH030801 RR
Question Submitted
March 8, 2021
Date Completed
March 30, 2021
Status
6. Cancelled
Research Team
Public Health
Key Findings
Pediatric cases of COVID-19 constitute between 1% to 10% of all confirmed cases of COVID-19; variation exists by jurisdiction.
Few case reports exist of confirmed child-to-other transmission. Contact tracing studies suggest that children are unlikely to be transmitters of the disease. Households are the most likely environments for transmission.
A recent large South Korean contact tracing study however (in pre-print) found that household COVID-19 transmission rates for children age 10-19 were significantly higher than in adults; transmission rates for children age 0-9 were relatively low.
AUGUST 7th, 2020 UPDATE: No new studies examining secondary attack rates of pediatric index cases were found. Studies continue to suggest low transmission from pediatric cases, and high proportion of pediatric cases being asymptomatic to mildly symptomatic.
MARCH 9th, 2021 UPDATE: Variants of Concerns are an emerging threat, but literature on pediatric prevalence and transmissibility is sparse. The British variant seems more transmissible (secondary attack rate higher) but follows the same age-related distribution of cases seen earlier in the pandemic.
Category
Epidemiology
Infection Prevention and Control
Subject
Vaccines
Variants
Pediatrics
Transmission
Schools
Population
All Pediatrics
Clinical Setting
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 2 One week (7 days)
Cite As
Sulaiman, F; Coomaran, V; Muhajarine, N; Dalidowicz, M; Miller, L. What are the effects of the new COVID variants on transmission and school reopenings in pediatric populations? 2021 Mar 30; Document no.: PH030801 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 14p. (CEST rapid review report)
Similar Reviews
EOC072102-01 ESR
EOC070201v2-01 ESR
EOC081201-01 ESR
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
PH021701 RR
Question Submitted
February 17, 2021
Date Completed
June 9, 2021
Status
4. Update in progress
Research Team
Public Health
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
PH021701 RR
Question Submitted
February 17, 2021
Date Completed
June 9, 2021
Status
4. Update in progress
Research Team
Public Health
Key Findings
Cohort studies identified worsening mental health outcomes, including depression, anxiety, scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and other subjective mental health measures.
Cross-sectional studies reported post-pandemic prevalence rates of 7%-44% for depression, 6%-47.5% for anxiety, and 3%-22% for PTSD. Worsening sleep quality and increased frequency of substance use were also reported. Effects on self-harm and suicidality are inconclusive.
Risk factors for worsening mental health included identifying as female, older age or higher school grade, and increased use of technology or social media. Exercise was found to be protective.
Category
Administration
Subject
Mental Health
Pediatrics
Priority Level
Level 3 Two weeks (14 days)
Cite As
Sulaiman, F; Hamid, E; Muhajarine, N; Dalidowicz, M; Miller, L. How has COVID-19 and the public health response to COVID-19 impacted mental health outcomes on children 5 to 18 years (school-age)? 2021 Jun 09, Document no.: PH021701 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2021. 18 p. (CEST rapid review report).
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC210901 RR
Question Submitted
September 21, 2021
Date Completed
September 30, 2021
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC210901 RR
Question Submitted
September 21, 2021
Date Completed
September 30, 2021
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
September 30, 2021
Studies conducted before mass vaccination campaigns began have reported proper and consistent facemasking by students and staff in school settings are associated with reduced incidence of school-associated transmission or seropositivity.
Fewer studies have reported efficacy of facemasking in the post-mass vaccination period in school settings. The studies available report, however, school-associated transmission were lower, less than 1% secondary attack rate in schools.
Studies of school-associated COVID-19 cases find community exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and/or noncompliance with multiple mitigation measures (e.g. facemask policies, distancing, non-isolation, etc) are key factors of clusters and outbreaks in children.
Category
Infection Prevention and Control
Subject
Face Masks
Public Health
Schools
Pediatrics
Population
All Pediatrics
All adults
Clinical Setting
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 4 Three weeks (21 days)
Cite As
Badea, A; Groot, G; Muhajarine, N; Howell-Spooner, B; Young, C. What is the evidence for the effectiveness of universal mask use in the pediatric population? 2021 Sep 30, Document no.: EOC210901 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2021. 14 p. (CEST rapid review report).
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC220102 RR
Question Submitted
January 10, 2022
Date Completed
February 4, 2022
Status
6. Cancelled
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC220102 RR
Question Submitted
January 10, 2022
Date Completed
February 4, 2022
Status
6. Cancelled
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
The CDC has released a recommendation that all adolescents 12-17 be offered booster vaccines using only the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine, at least 5 months following the primary series
The CDC guidelines follow the review of unpublished Israeli data of 12-15 year olds vaccinated 5-6 months prior showing an equivalent infection rate to unvaccinated, and that those who receive boosters are at about 1/3 of the risk
Health Canada has not yet approved booster doses for general use in 12-17 year olds, however NACI has recommended that boosters, at least 6 months following the primary series, should be considered for the following groups within that age group o Those with an underlying medical condition at high risk of severe illness due to COVID-19 (including those who are immunocompromised and received a 3-dose primary series) o Those who are residents in congregate settings (e.g. shelters, group homes, quarters for migrant workers, correctional facilities) o Those who belong to racialized and/or marginalized communities disproportionately affected by COVID-19
Notes
Updated Review cancelled due to insufficient evidence
Category
Epidemiology
Infection Prevention and Control
Subject
Immunity
Infection Prevention and Control
Pediatrics
Public Health
Vaccination
Priority Level
Level 2 One week (7 days)
Cite As
Badea, A; Reeder, B; Groot, G; Dalidowicz, M; Fox, L. Is there evidence that children under 18 should receive the booster to increase their immunity? 2022 Feb 04, Document no.: EOC220102 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2022. 8 p. (CEST rapid review report).
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8 records – page 1 of 1.