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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC071001 RR
Question Submitted
July 10, 2020
Date Completed
July 27, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC071001 RR
Question Submitted
July 10, 2020
Date Completed
July 27, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
· The terms cluster and outbreak both describe the occurrence of new disease cases within a particular location and time period. The number of cases within a cluster are not necessarily greater than what is expected, however in an outbreak the number of cases does exceed the usual norm. · In an outbreak the cases are confirmed to be epidemiologically linked while in a cluster an epidemiological connection is only suspected. · Not all clusters are outbreaks, however each cluster needs to be investigated
· Understanding how to characterize COVID-19 cases based on a suspected or proven epidemiological link can better guide prevention of disease spreading
Category
Administration
Epidemiology
Subject
Disease Outbreak
Public Health
Health Planning
Decision Making
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Community
Emergency
Long Term Care
Other
All acute care.
Priority Level
Level 5 completed within 2 weeks
Cite As
Radu, L; Badea, A; Groot, G; Ellsworth, C; Young, C. What is the definition of an outbreak versus a cluster for COVID-19 in different clinical and community settings in Canada, the US, and the UK? 2020 Jul 27; Document no.: EOC071001 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 11 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC081301 RR
Question Submitted
August 12, 2020
Date Completed
August 14, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC081301 RR
Question Submitted
August 12, 2020
Date Completed
August 14, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
· Pool testing for COVID-19 can be equal to individual testing in terms of sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative prediction rates · Pooled testing is optimal for use when disease prevalence is low, as prevalence increases, optimal pool sizes decrease and efficiency is lost · At a prevalence of approximately 1%, optimal pool sizes have been found to be up to 13 · Pools of 5 were found to be equally efficient and could be done using 50% less tests up to a prevalence of 5% · Recommended for use in large scale asymptomatic screening, highest viral load occurs before symptoms so less likely to miss borderline positive in convalescent stage · Not recommended for clinical diagnostic use
Category
Diagnostics
Subject
Testing
Public Health
Decision Making
Priority Level
Level 3 completed within 2-3 days
Cite As
Badea, A; Muhajarine, N; Dalidowicz, M. Is pooled testing for COVID-19 equally as reliable as individual testing and what are the optimal pool testing sizes? 2020 Aug 14; Document no.: EOC081301 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 19 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC070901 RR
Question Submitted
July 9, 2020
Date Completed
August 17, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC070901 RR
Question Submitted
July 9, 2020
Date Completed
August 17, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
A number of jurisdictions have re-opened schools successfully without a spike in COVID-19 cases, eg. Japan, Germany, France, Finland, Denmark, Austria, Norway
Most school plans indicate that staff/students/visitors who are sick or have had exposure to COVID-19 in the past 14 days should not attend school, and those that become symptomatic at school should be isolated and removed from the premises as soon as possible, with thorough cleaning thereafter
In Alberta, if two or more members of a cohort are found to be COVID-19 positive, schools should follow the outbreak procedures which are under review until September
In Nova Scotia, one confirmed case of COVID-19 in a school would be considered an outbreak
In Germany, classmates and teachers of an infected student are sent home for two weeks but other classes continue
Taiwan (based on the H1N1 response) suspends the class which had a confirmed case identified, for 14 days. With two or more cases the whole school must close. When 1/3 of the schools in a district are closed, all schools in the district must close.
In Israel, schools closed after a single case was identified , and following mass outbreaks in schools at least 355 schools had closed with over 2,026 students and staff testing positive and over 28,000 students in quarantine due to possible exposure
Category
Infection Prevention and Control
Subject
Reopening
Closures
Schools
Public Health
Decision Making
Clinical Setting
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 5 completed within 2 weeks
Cite As
Badea, A; Muhajarine, N; Reeder, B; Miller, L; Mueller, M. What is the evidence and rationale describing the key public health principles to consider for school re-openings and precautions regarding school closures during COVID-19? 2020 Aug 17; Document no.: EOC070901 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 22 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC081201 RR
Question Submitted
August 12, 2020
Date Completed
August 26, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC081201 RR
Question Submitted
August 12, 2020
Date Completed
August 26, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
· Potential impact on reproductive rate (R) of the seven “returning to school” scenarios that were modeled by SAGE exhibited an increase in R due to reopening of school. The scale of increase depended on current value of R within each community and mitigation plans within the community, especially the adherence to social distancing measures. · CDC recommended using additional indicators such as healthcare capacity, new cases, and percent of positive cases to decide school operations along with community spread levels: none-to-minimal, minimal-to-moderate, substantial-controlled, and substantial-uncontrolled. · Combination of strategies such as mask usage, physical distancing, hygiene measures, classroom cohorting, symptomatic screening, testing and tracing of students, staff and teachers along with low levels of community transmission can aid in maintaining low level of R. · Increasing testing and contract tracing can impede an epidemic rebound. · Intersectoral partnerships with local authorities, dedicated personnel (such as coordinators) for testing and tracing along with appropriate communication with parents, teachers and staff should be followed to open schools safely.
Category
Administration
Epidemiology
Subject
Reopening
Schools
Transmission
Public Health
Decision Making
Population
All Pediatrics
Priority Level
Level 4 completed within 1 week
Cite As
Pisolkar, V; McRae, D; Muhajarine, N; Dalidowicz, M; Ellsworth, C. What COVID community transmission indicators are used in school reopening plans? 2020 Aug 26; Document no.: EOC081201 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 23 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC082502 RR
Question Submitted
August 25, 2020
Date Completed
August 29, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC082502 RR
Question Submitted
August 25, 2020
Date Completed
August 29, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
· Infrared thermometers detect the infrared waves emitted by an object and convert into an electrical signal to display the distribution of temperature · Infrared thermometers do not emit radiation, however many are equipped with a laser tracker beam, similar to that found in television remote controls · The Pineal Gland is located deep inside the brain, separated from the forehead by the presence of the skull and several centimeters of brain tissue
Category
Administration
Infection Prevention and Control
Subject
Infrared Thermometers
Screening
Public Health
Risk
Population
All
Priority Level
Level 3 completed within 2-3 days
Cite As
Badea, A; Groot, G; Ellsworth, C; Fox, L. Is there evidence of risks for using infrared thermometers? 2020 Aug 29; Document no.: EOC082502 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 12 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC082501 RR
Question Submitted
August 25, 2020
Date Completed
September 4, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC082501 RR
Question Submitted
August 25, 2020
Date Completed
September 4, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
Based on a rapid review performed by the Public Health Agency of Canada and an updated literature search found herein, there is limited evidence of SARS-CoV-2 viral transmission through heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.
Schools are encouraged to ensure their HVAC systems are functioning properly in order to further mitigate risk of viral spread via this method.
Recommendations for optimal HVAC system settings are published, but schools should follow local guidelines with the help of HVAC professionals.
Category
Infection Prevention and Control
Subject
Facilities
Airborne
Public Health
Schools
Transmission
Population
All Pediatrics
Clinical Setting
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 3 completed within 2-3 days
Cite As
Vanstone, J; Asamoah, G; Muhajarine, N; Reeder. B; Dalidowicz, M; Young, C. What role do ventilation systems play in the prevention and spread of COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases in non-clinical buildings? 2020 Sep 4; Document no.: EOC082501 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 7 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC062301v3 RR
Question Submitted
June 23, 2020
Date Completed
December 1, 2020
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC062301v3 RR
Question Submitted
June 23, 2020
Date Completed
December 1, 2020
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
Systematic reviews indicate there is a growing evidence in support of a correlation between mask use and lowered risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection
Case-control and observational studies have demonstrated a positive effect on community transmission rates
Masks provide the greatest community impact when implemented early, adherence is high and when combined with social distancing and hand hygiene
Individual protection is largely impacted by mask material and fit
Mask use is considered an adjunct to, rather than a replacement for, other non-pharmaceutical public health measures (social distancing, hand-washing)
Category
Infection Prevention and Control
Subject
Personal Protective Equipment
Face Masks
Public Health
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 4 completed within 1 week
Cite As
Badea, A; Groot, G; Howell-Spooner, B; Young, C. What is the evidence for the effectiveness of universal mask use by the public? 2020 Dec 1; Document no.: EOC062301v3 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 33 p. (CEST rapid review report)
Review History
EOC062301 RR: August 9, 2020
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC210901 RR
Question Submitted
September 21, 2021
Date Completed
September 30, 2021
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC210901 RR
Question Submitted
September 21, 2021
Date Completed
September 30, 2021
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
September 30, 2021
Studies conducted before mass vaccination campaigns began have reported proper and consistent facemasking by students and staff in school settings are associated with reduced incidence of school-associated transmission or seropositivity.
Fewer studies have reported efficacy of facemasking in the post-mass vaccination period in school settings. The studies available report, however, school-associated transmission were lower, less than 1% secondary attack rate in schools.
Studies of school-associated COVID-19 cases find community exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and/or noncompliance with multiple mitigation measures (e.g. facemask policies, distancing, non-isolation, etc) are key factors of clusters and outbreaks in children.
Category
Infection Prevention and Control
Subject
Face Masks
Public Health
Schools
Pediatrics
Population
All Pediatrics
All adults
Clinical Setting
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 4 Three weeks (21 days)
Cite As
Badea, A; Groot, G; Muhajarine, N; Howell-Spooner, B; Young, C. What is the evidence for the effectiveness of universal mask use in the pediatric population? 2021 Sep 30, Document no.: EOC210901 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2021. 14 p. (CEST rapid review report).
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC220102 RR
Question Submitted
January 10, 2022
Date Completed
February 4, 2022
Status
6. Cancelled
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC220102 RR
Question Submitted
January 10, 2022
Date Completed
February 4, 2022
Status
6. Cancelled
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
The CDC has released a recommendation that all adolescents 12-17 be offered booster vaccines using only the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine, at least 5 months following the primary series
The CDC guidelines follow the review of unpublished Israeli data of 12-15 year olds vaccinated 5-6 months prior showing an equivalent infection rate to unvaccinated, and that those who receive boosters are at about 1/3 of the risk
Health Canada has not yet approved booster doses for general use in 12-17 year olds, however NACI has recommended that boosters, at least 6 months following the primary series, should be considered for the following groups within that age group o Those with an underlying medical condition at high risk of severe illness due to COVID-19 (including those who are immunocompromised and received a 3-dose primary series) o Those who are residents in congregate settings (e.g. shelters, group homes, quarters for migrant workers, correctional facilities) o Those who belong to racialized and/or marginalized communities disproportionately affected by COVID-19
Notes
Updated Review cancelled due to insufficient evidence
Category
Epidemiology
Infection Prevention and Control
Subject
Immunity
Infection Prevention and Control
Pediatrics
Public Health
Vaccination
Priority Level
Level 2 One week (7 days)
Cite As
Badea, A; Reeder, B; Groot, G; Dalidowicz, M; Fox, L. Is there evidence that children under 18 should receive the booster to increase their immunity? 2022 Feb 04, Document no.: EOC220102 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2022. 8 p. (CEST rapid review report).
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC220301 SBAR
Question Submitted
March 1, 2022
Date Completed
May 2022
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC220301 SBAR
Question Submitted
March 1, 2022
Date Completed
May 2022
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Notes
This is not a regular rapid review. It was decided to write this SBAR instead.
Category
Healthcare Services
Subject
Vaccines
Vaccination
Public Health
Decision Making
Health Personnel
Infection Prevention and Control
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Community
Primary care
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 3 Two weeks (14 days)
Cite As
Rowein S, Singh S, Habbick M, Mehdiyeva K, Miller L, Gagneur, A, Groot G, Neudorf C, Camillo CA, Tokhmafshan, F, Muhajarine N. Motivational Interviewing for Vaccine Hesitancy. May 2022. Document no.: [12.1]. CoVaRR-Net Public Health, Health Systems, Social Policy Team, c2022.
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10 records – page 1 of 1.