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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EPM210602 RR
Question Submitted
June 22, 2021
Date Completed
July 12, 2021
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Epidemiology & Modelling
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EPM210602 RR
Question Submitted
June 22, 2021
Date Completed
July 12, 2021
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Epidemiology & Modelling
Key Findings
Long COVID-19 is likely to increase healthcare demands across the health system, including emergency departments, hospital admissions, primary care visits, specialists appointments, and home care and rehabilitation services.
The clinical care burden of long COVID-19 is the greatest in the first 3 months after testing and is likely to place the greatest demand on primary care services.
Patients with severe COVID-19 illness are more likely to place longer-term demands (4-6 months) on specialist care due to respiratory, circulatory, endocrine, metabolic, psychiatric and unspecified conditions.
Category
Clinical Presentation
Epidemiology
Subject
Long Covid
Health Planning
Clinical Presentation
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Ambulatory
Community
Emergency
ICU
Long Term Care
Medicine Unit
Primary care
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 1 2-3 days
Cite As
McLean, M; Williams-Roberts, H; Reeder, B; Howell-Spooner, B; Ellsworth, C. What are long COVID's demands on the healthcare system, and its severity of the illness? 2021 Jul 12, Document no.: EPM210602 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2021. 23 p. (CEST rapid review report).
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EPM210601 RR
Question Submitted
June 22, 2021
Date Completed
July 9, 2021
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Epidemiology & Modelling
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EPM210601 RR
Question Submitted
June 22, 2021
Date Completed
July 9, 2021
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Epidemiology & Modelling
Key Findings
The frequency of Long COVID symptoms varies widely across studies based on populations studied, duration of follow up and methods of assessment of symptoms.
It is estimated that 1 in 50 persons experience Long COVID symptoms after 12 weeks; however, higher estimates up to 80% have been reported in studies with a greater proportion of persons who were previously hospitalized. A recent study of a mixed cohort of 96 persons found that only 22.9% had no symptoms at 12 months post diagnosis.
A wide range of symptoms affecting multiple organ systems has been reported. For many persons symptoms improve over time while others experience persistent and/or new symptoms. Among studies with the longest duration of follow up, the most frequently reported symptoms included fatigue (up to 65%), dyspnea (up to 50%), headache (up to 45%), anosmia/ageusia (up to 25%), cognitive memory/concentration (up to 39.6%) and sleep disorders (up to 26%).
Few studies estimated the duration of symptoms with estimates ranging from 2.2% for 6 months and 27% for 7-9 months.
The mechanism(s) leading to Long COVID remain unclear but those experiencing post acute sequelae tend to be older, have a greater number of symptoms during the acute phase of illness or manifest specific symptoms and live with multiple comorbid conditions such as obesity.
The lack of consensus on a definition of Long COVID contributes to marked variations in robust prevalence estimates.
Category
Clinical Presentation
Epidemiology
Subject
Long Covid
Symptoms
Clinical Presentation
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Ambulatory
Community
ICU
Long Term Care
Medicine Unit
Primary care
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 1 2-3 days
Cite As
Williams-Roberts, H; Groot, G; Reeder, B; Howell-Spooner, B; Ellsworth, C. What is the incidence and duration of Long COVID cases? 2021 Jul 09, Document no.: EPM210601 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2021. 19 p. (CEST rapid review report).
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC021901 RR
Question Submitted
February 19, 2021
Date Completed
March 15, 2021
Status
4. Update in progress
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC021901 RR
Question Submitted
February 19, 2021
Date Completed
March 15, 2021
Status
4. Update in progress
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
There is a lack of consensus around the clinical definition of Long COVID which in turn causes challenges with understanding the incidence and prevalence as well as the potential impact for the health care system.
Information about the natural history of Long COVID is incomplete but limited evidence suggests that the immune response trajectories differ for those with few or no symptoms compared to those with severe disease. Individuals with severe disease are more likely to exhibit immunological marker abnormalities but anyone can experience functional limitations.
The mechanisms underlying the development of persistent symptoms in Long COVID remain an enigma. Despite multiple theories, there is little empirical evidence for specific immunological and or biochemical abnormalities in samples of individuals with symptoms consistent with Long COVID.
Risk factors for Long COVID include female gender, older age, higher body mass index, pre-existing asthma and the number of symptoms.
Few studies explored the short-term impact of Long COVID on health care utilization patterns and found a higher impact for those with severe disease compared with mild disease.
Category
Healthcare Services
Clinical Presentation
Subject
Long Covid
Symptoms
Clinical Presentation
Health Planning
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Ambulatory
Long Term Care
Primary care
Priority Level
Level 5 Four weeks+ (28 days+)
Cite As
Williams-Roberts, H; Groot, G; Reeder, B; Linassi, G; Basran, J; Dalidowicz, M; Mueller, M. Long COVID: What does it mean for the healthcare system and programs to deal with it? 2021 Mar 15; Document no.: EOC021901 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 37 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
PPE120901 RR
Question Submitted
December 9, 2020
Date Completed
December 18, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Personal Protective Equipment
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
PPE120901 RR
Question Submitted
December 9, 2020
Date Completed
December 18, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Personal Protective Equipment
Key Findings
Moderate evidence supporting the concept that airway management and certain surgical procedures create aerosols
No definitive evidence for the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during AGMP
Indirect evidence from SARS-CoV-1 indicates that HCW present during AGMP are at higher risk of infection, but evidence quality is very low and very difficult to generalize
The absence of definitive evidence does not equate to the absence of risk and most policy recommendations err on the side of safety for Health Care Workers
Category
Infection Prevention and Control
Subject
Aerosols
Risk
Transmission
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Ambulatory
Long Term Care
Priority Level
Level 2 One week (7 days)
Cite As
Badea, A; Groot, G; Fox, L; Mueller, M. What is the risk of COVID-19 transmission during AGMP procedures? 2020 Dec 18; Document no.: PPE120901 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 30 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
PH042401 RR
Question Submitted
24-Apr-2020
Date Completed
April 28, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Public Health
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
PH042401 RR
Question Submitted
24-Apr-2020
Date Completed
April 28, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Public Health
Key Findings
Screening tools commonly include fever, respiratory symptoms (cough, shortness of breath), and epidemiological risk factors. · The sensitivity and specificity of screening questionnaires depends considerably on the items used in the questionnaire. The limited published literature demonstrates great variability in the performance of different screening tools: sensitivity ranges from 0 – 48.6 – 84.3 – 100%; specificity ranges from 64.8 – 71.3 – 89.6 – 96%). · The standard WHO symptom checklist performs poorly, with a sensitivity of 48.6%, and specificity of 89.6%. As such, half of individuals who have SARS-CoV-2 present at the time of testing will be missed by the symptom questionnaire (being either asymptomatic or presymptomatic). Depending on the population being screened the prevalence of the virus may vary widely. Given the sensitivity and specificity of the WHO symptom checklist in a population with prevalence ranging from 0.1% to 1% to 10% the positive predictive value (PPV) will be poor, range from 0.4% to 4.8% to 35%, respectively. Furthermore, the performance characteristics of the screening questionnaire may be poorer than reported if used in a setting or time of year when other respiratory viruses with similar symptoms are circulating.
Category
Diagnostics
Epidemiology
Subject
Screening
Population
All
Neonates
Infants
All Pediatrics
Clinical Setting
Ambulatory
Emergency
Long Term Care
Other
OR
Priority Level
Level 4 completed within 1 week
Cite As
Fick, F; Neudorf, C; Reeder, B; Dalidowicz, M; Mueller, M. What is the sensitivity and specificity of screening checklists and temperature checks for detecting the presence of COVID-19 in individuals? 2020 Apr 28; Document no.: PH042401 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 20 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC040101 RR
Question Submitted
April 1, 2020
Date Completed
April 1, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC040101 RR
Question Submitted
April 1, 2020
Date Completed
April 1, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
· There are some recommendations and precautions from WHO, CDC, Canada and the UK that there is transmission of the COVID virus from the administration of nebulizer medication. · Some case studies of SARS found few instances that patients may likely be infected after aerosol generating procedures including nebulized medications, and although there are few evidences that demonstrates low risk of viral transmission from nebulizers, possibility of transmission remains
Category
Epidemiology
Infection Prevention and Control
Subject
Aerosols
Risk
Transmission
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Ambulatory
Priority Level
Level 2 completed within 8 hours
Cite As
Badea, A; Groot, G; Fenton, M; Dalidowicz, M; Young, C. What is the degree of COVID-19 transmission through the administration of nebulizer medication either in clinical practice or in animal experiments? 2020 Apr 1; Document no.: EOC040101 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 10 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC033001 RR
Question Submitted
March 30, 2020
Date Completed
March 30, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC033001 RR
Question Submitted
March 30, 2020
Date Completed
March 30, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
· Some countries like Taiwan and Malaysia have created their own intubation hood design as others offered to produce or modify the original design to fit their country’s equipment. · Several countries have also created innovation in airway management such as 3D printed respirator valves for hospitals and 3D printed ventilators. · An Emergency physician in Northern Italy shared that due to influx of patients in the hospitals, “intubation and invasive mechanical ventilators in the ED are reserved for patients not responsive to NIV” although in principle can give a more favorable chance for patients if given before their condition deteriorates.
Category
Infection Prevention and Control
Subject
Intubation
Aerosols
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Ambulatory
Cardiac unit
Priority Level
Level 2 completed within 8 hours
Cite As
Badea, A; Groot, G; Dalidowicz, M. Where and how are they producing and using intubation hoods? 2020 Mar 30; Document no.: EOC033001 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 7 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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EOC090202 RR
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7 records – page 1 of 1.