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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC210901 RR
Question Submitted
September 21, 2021
Date Completed
September 30, 2021
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC210901 RR
Question Submitted
September 21, 2021
Date Completed
September 30, 2021
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
September 30, 2021
Studies conducted before mass vaccination campaigns began have reported proper and consistent facemasking by students and staff in school settings are associated with reduced incidence of school-associated transmission or seropositivity.
Fewer studies have reported efficacy of facemasking in the post-mass vaccination period in school settings. The studies available report, however, school-associated transmission were lower, less than 1% secondary attack rate in schools.
Studies of school-associated COVID-19 cases find community exposure to SARS-CoV-2 and/or noncompliance with multiple mitigation measures (e.g. facemask policies, distancing, non-isolation, etc) are key factors of clusters and outbreaks in children.
Category
Infection Prevention and Control
Subject
Face Masks
Public Health
Schools
Pediatrics
Population
All Pediatrics
All adults
Clinical Setting
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 4 Three weeks (21 days)
Cite As
Badea, A; Groot, G; Muhajarine, N; Howell-Spooner, B; Young, C. What is the evidence for the effectiveness of universal mask use in the pediatric population? 2021 Sep 30, Document no.: EOC210901 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2021. 14 p. (CEST rapid review report).
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC210503 RR
Question Submitted
May 28, 2021
Date Completed
June 21, 2021
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC210503 RR
Question Submitted
May 28, 2021
Date Completed
June 21, 2021
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
Requiring proof of vaccination for entry into another country is not a new idea. There are regulations that need to be followed to set up a “vaccine passport” in relation to international travel (International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005))
At present the World Health Organization does not recommend vaccine passports for international travel, but they are working on a standard Smart Vaccination Certificate technical specification and standards to allow for harmonised processes to include COVID-19 vaccines into an updated version of the IHR (2005)
Countries around the world are beginning to put vaccine passports into place for international travel, as well as in some countries within country travel and access to services or businesses including Israel, France, Italy, Denmark, and the EU
The Canadian Federal government is supportive of a vaccine passport for international travel but recognize the issuing of vaccine passports will need to be province led
As of May 13, 2021, the province of Quebec has begun issuing a downloadable QR code that individual can keep on their smart phone.
As of June 9, 2021, the Federal government of Canada discussed easing restrictions for fully vaccinated Canadian citizens returning to the country
Ethical considerations in the use of vaccine passports include equitable access to vaccination (domestically and internationally), access to technology (eg. Smartphone passports), marginalization, or stigmatization especially among historically racialized groups, and socially isolated populations
Legal considerations include o Clarifying who has the legal authority to require proof of vaccination, o Ensuring that if new legislation is created and implemented it is in line with all pre-existing legislation (Charter of Rights and Freedoms, Human Rights Codes, privacy legislation, employment legislation), o Ensuring that, if created by the government, there is coordination of the Provincial and Federal governments for international travel with respect to jurisdictional overlap, security of information, fraud
Health care facilities should be able to legally enact vaccination policies for patient-facing employees so long as they allow for exemptions due to medical inability or bona fide religious, or conscientious beliefs
Six in ten Canadians (61%) expect vaccine passports to be widely used in Canada by the end of 2021, the same proportion (61%) of Canadians also agreed that only vaccinated people should be allowed to engage in events involving larger crowds such as public transit, air travel, or attending cultural and sports events
Category
Administration
Subject
Ethics
Decision Making
Vaccination
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Community
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 2 One week (7 days)
Cite As
Lashta E, von Tigerstrom B, Reeder B, Groot G; Miller, L; Mueller, M. What are the ethical/legal aspects of vaccine requirements? 2021 Jun 21, Document no.: EOC210503 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2021. 25 p. (CEST rapid review report).
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC062301v3 RR
Question Submitted
June 23, 2020
Date Completed
December 1, 2020
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC062301v3 RR
Question Submitted
June 23, 2020
Date Completed
December 1, 2020
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
Systematic reviews indicate there is a growing evidence in support of a correlation between mask use and lowered risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection
Case-control and observational studies have demonstrated a positive effect on community transmission rates
Masks provide the greatest community impact when implemented early, adherence is high and when combined with social distancing and hand hygiene
Individual protection is largely impacted by mask material and fit
Mask use is considered an adjunct to, rather than a replacement for, other non-pharmaceutical public health measures (social distancing, hand-washing)
Category
Infection Prevention and Control
Subject
Personal Protective Equipment
Face Masks
Public Health
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 4 completed within 1 week
Cite As
Badea, A; Groot, G; Howell-Spooner, B; Young, C. What is the evidence for the effectiveness of universal mask use by the public? 2020 Dec 1; Document no.: EOC062301v3 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 33 p. (CEST rapid review report)
Review History
EOC062301 RR: August 9, 2020
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC091101 RR
Question Submitted
September 11, 2020
Date Completed
September 17, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC091101 RR
Question Submitted
September 11, 2020
Date Completed
September 17, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Key Findings
The evidence to support medical exemptions for mask wearing is limited. The predominant discourse revolves around a risk-based approach that considers the potential benefits and harms for individuals; few absolute exceptions to masking have been advocated. Masks are one part of a comprehensive strategy to reduce the spread of SARS CoV-2 infection and should be viewed in the context of other public health measures including physical distancing, hand hygiene and respiratory etiquette.
Category
Infection Prevention and Control
Subject
Face Masks
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Community
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 3 completed within 2-3 days
Cite As
Williams-Roberts, H; McLean, M; Groot, G; Young, C; Mueller, M; Miller, L. What evidence is there to support medical exemptions for mask wearing? 2020 Sep 17; Document no.: EOC091101 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 20 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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