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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC031801v015 RR
Question Submitted
March 18, 2021
Date Completed
October 22, 2021
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
EOC
Review History: EOC031801 RR – EOC031801v014 RR: March 25 – October 13, 2021 Cite As: Asamoah
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC031801v015 RR
Question Submitted
March 18, 2021
Date Completed
October 22, 2021
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
EOC
Updated Key Findings
October 19, 2021 - Delta dominance – Delta variants continue to dominate worldwide, more than 99% of newly reported cases in Europe are attributed to the Delta variant. - Higher infection rate of Delta variant has been reported among younger population (18-44 years (55%)) in the US. - Variants of Concern (VOC) have been reported to be more virulent, especially Delta - associated with a 108% increased risk of infection, a 235% increased risk of ICU admission, and a 133% higher risk of death.
Key Findings
October 13, 2021 - Delta dominance - Delta continues to account for the majority of variants sequenced from surveillance data from Public Health Ontario, Public Health England and ECDC. - Following a Delta outbreak among incarcerated persons in a federal prison, the CDC recommends maintaining multi-component prevention strategies such as testing, masking, prompt medical isolation, and quarantine in congregate settings where physical distancing is challenging, even with a high vaccination rate. - Public Health England reports that unvaccinated people younger than 50 years comprised the highest proportion of attendances to emergency care and deaths due to Delta infection in the UK from 1 February 2021 to 12 September 2021. - CDC surveillance data indicates that unvaccinated people face 11 times the risk of death from Delta variant in the US. - Increased severity of COVID-19 in pregnant individuals has been observed during Delta surge in Dallas County, TX US between August 29, 2021, and September 4, 2021 - A cluster of 59 cases has been linked to a single flight with 146 passengers from New Delhi to Hong Kong in April 2021, despite the 72 hours testing policy. Sequence analysis identified two VOC; Alpha and Delta.
Category
Epidemiology
Healthcare Services
Subject
Health Planning
Variants
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Community
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 3 Two weeks (14 days)
Cite As
Asamoah, G; Badea, A; Lee, S; Shumilak, G; Reeder, B; Groot, G; Muhajarine, N; Hernandez-Ronquillo L; Miller, L; Howell-Spooner, B. What is the epidemiology of variants and what are the implications for healthcare? 2021 Oct 22. Document no.: EOC031801v015 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2021. 44 p. (CEST rapid review report).
Review History
EOC031801v14 RR
v012 and v013 RR were combined into v013
EOC031801v011 RR: August 27, 2021
v010 and v011 RR were combined into v011
EOC031801v9 RR: August 19, 2021
EOC031801v8 RR: July 12, 2021
EOC031801v7 RR; June 24, 2021
EOC031801v6 RR; June 17, 2021
EOC031801v5 RR; June 2, 2021
EOC031801v4 RR; May 17, 2021
EOC031801v3 RR: May 3, 2021
EOC031801v2 RR: April 20, 2021
EOC031801 RR: March 25, 2021
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
INF031801v014 RR
Question Submitted
March 18, 2021
Date Completed
October 16, 2021
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
Infectious Disease
, 2021 Version: 14 Review History: INF031801 RR - INF031801v013 RR: March 31, 2021 – September 24
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
INF031801v014 RR
Question Submitted
March 18, 2021
Date Completed
October 16, 2021
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
Infectious Disease
Updated Key Findings
October 16, 2021
On September 22, 2021, FDA authorized an additional (booster) dose of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine =6 months after completion of the primary series among persons aged =65 years, at high risk for severe COVID-19, or whose occupational or institutional exposure puts them at high risk for COVID-19.
Health Canada has updated the AstraZeneca (Vaxzevria) and Janssen COVID-19 vaccine product monographs to include information on Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS) or Vaccine-Induced Immune Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia (VITT).
The new SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Risk Assessment published on September 30, 2021 by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) stated that the EU has not yet achieved high enough COVID-19 vaccination coverage in their total populations (only 61.1% vaccinated) to relax restrictions as there is considerable variation in vaccine uptake across countries, resulting in large proportions of the EU/EEA population remaining susceptible to infection.
The ECDC also recommended that: “Vaccination against seasonal influenza, particularly for vulnerable populations and healthcare workers, will be essential to mitigate the impact on individuals and on healthcare systems in the coming months from the potential co-circulation of the two viruses.
Pfizer Inc (PFE.N) said on September 27, 2021, it has started a large study testing its investigational oral antiviral drug for the prevention of COVID-19 infection among those who have been exposed to the virus.
Key Findings
September 24, 2021
The Joint Committee on Vaccinations and immunization (JCVI) in the UK give a precautionary approach regarding vaccination of children aged 12 to 15 years who do not have underlying health conditions.
A prospective study has shown that the use of a booster dose (third dose, 5 months after full vaccination) with Pfizer (BNT162b2) substantially reduces the rate of confirmed COVID-19 infection and severe illness among individuals 60 and older.
Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunization released recommendations on September 10th 2021 to provide a third vaccine dose to immunocompromised and populations with serious immunodeficiencies.
The JCVI is advising booster vaccines be offered to those more at risk from serious disease such as residents in care homes, adults aged 50 years or over, frontline HCW, individuals with underlying health conditions and adult household contacts of immunosuppressed individuals.
Category
Epidemiology
Infection Prevention and Control
Subject
Immunity
Vaccines
Infection Prevention and Control
Clinical Presentation
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Community
ICU
Medicine Unit
Primary care
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 3 Two weeks (14 days)
Cite As
Jagwani, M; Lee, S; Shumilak, G; Reeder, B; Groot, G; Hernandez, L; Howell-Spooner, B; Miller, L. How effective are COVID-19 vaccines? 2021 Oct 16. Document no.: INF031801v014 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2021. 96 p. (CEST rapid review report)
Review History
INF031801v014 RR: October 16, 2021
INF031801v013 RR: September 24, 2021
INF031801v012 RR: September 10, 2021
INF031801v010 RR: August 25, 2021
INF031801v9 RR: August 23, 2021
INF031801v8 RR: August 9, 2021
INF031801v7 RR: July 20, 2021
INF031801v6 RR: July 2, 2021
INF031801v5 RR: June 22, 2021
INF031801v4 RR: June 3, 2021
INF031801v3 RR: May 24, 2021
INF031801v2 RR: May 14, 2021
INF031801 RR: March 31, 2021
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