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13 records – page 1 of 2.

Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
LTC042402-01 ESR
Question Submitted
April 24, 2020
Date Completed
April 28, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Long Term Care
providers to consider their own role as a resource to other specialties during this public health emergency
Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
LTC042402-01 ESR
Question Submitted
April 24, 2020
Date Completed
April 28, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Long Term Care
Category
Administration
Healthcare Services
Subject
Facilities
Long Term Care
Palliative Care
Infection Prevention and Control
Family
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Cardiac unit
Emergency
ICU
Long Term Care
Medicine Unit
NICU
Oncology
Priority Level
Level 4 completed within 1 week
Cite As
Howell-Spooner, B; Dalidowicz, M; Boden, C. How is "compassionate visit" defined and operationalized in the context of an infectious outbreak or pandemic? 2020 Apr 28; Document no.: LTC042402-01 ESR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 7 p. (CEST evidence search report)
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
LTC042402 RR
Question Submitted
April 24, 2020
Date Completed
April 30, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Long Term Care
the patient's condition is considered high risk for loss of life. o Outpatient, emergency department patients
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
LTC042402 RR
Question Submitted
April 24, 2020
Date Completed
April 30, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Long Term Care
Key Findings
Visitor restrictions in long-term care (LTC) during an outbreak or pandemic are implemented due to the perceived risk of transmission between residents or staff and visitors. · Social isolation and possible loss of care resulting from visitor restrictions in LTC may place residents at risk of poorer outcomes in terms of both physical and mental health, as well as distress to families and staff (see Saskatchewan LTC Network Family Perspective). · Visitor restriction policies typically allow visits for compassionate reasons that include end of life, critical care, and support of persons who require assistance beyond that provided by healthcare e.g. support for feeding, mobility, or behaviors, but specific detail on these is not consistent or clear. · Recent changes to visitation policies in Australia are less restrictive and allow brief visitations (end of table 1, noted in red font). · Although the majority of policies describe a need for flexibility and case-by-case assessment of visits deemed “essential”, the majority of policies are not clear in who is to conduct this analysis or the criteria that should be used to make these decisions. Visitation policies differ in detail regarding the number of visitors allowed at one time, total number of visitors allowed, visit duration, mobility within the home and location of the visit. · Remote and technology assisted visits are to be facilitated by LTC staff. · Infection control practices are enforced for visitors, and may include screening (e.g. temperature, symptoms, travel and contact history), prohibiting ill visitors, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), hand and cough hygiene. · Education of visitors and support for proper infection control practices is encouraged in the majority of policies.
Category
Administration
Healthcare Services
Subject
Facilities
Long Term Care
Palliative Care
Infection Prevention and Control
Family
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Cardiac unit
Emergency
ICU
Long Term Care
Medicine Unit
NICU
Oncology
Priority Level
Level 4 completed within 1 week
Cite As
Tupper, S; Ward, H; Howell-Spooner, B; Dalidowicz, M; Boden, C. How is "compassionate visit" defined and operationalized in the context of an infectious outbreak or pandemic in long-term care? 2020 May 1; Document no.: LTC042402 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 17 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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Document Type
Table
Review Code
EPM210602v002 RR Table
Question Submitted
June 22, 2021
Date Completed
June 20, 2022
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
Epidemiology & Modelling
included all adults aged at least 18 years old who were hospitalized or presented to the Emergency
Document Type
Table
Review Code
EPM210602v002 RR Table
Question Submitted
June 22, 2021
Date Completed
June 20, 2022
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
Epidemiology & Modelling
Category
Clinical Presentation
Epidemiology
Subject
Long Covid
Health Planning
Clinical Presentation
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Ambulatory
Community
Emergency
ICU
Long Term Care
Medicine Unit
Primary care
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 1 2-3 days
Cite As
Groot, G; Reeder, B; Hammond, B; Badea, A; Howell-Spooner, B; Ellsworth, C. What are long COVID's demands on the healthcare system, and its severity of the illness? 2022 Jun 20, Document no.: EPM210602v002 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2022. (CEST table).
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EPM210602v002 RR Table

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Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
EPM210602v2 ESR
Question Submitted
June 22, 2021
Date Completed
March 11, 2022
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
Epidemiology & Modelling
Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
EPM210602v2 ESR
Question Submitted
June 22, 2021
Date Completed
March 11, 2022
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
Epidemiology & Modelling
Category
Clinical Presentation
Epidemiology
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Ambulatory
Community
Emergency
ICU
Long Term Care
Medicine Unit
Primary care
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 1 2-3 days
Cite As
Howell-Spooner, B; Ellsworth, C. What are long COVID's demands on the healthcare system, and its severity of the illness? 2022 Mar 11, Document no.: EPM210602v2 ESR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2022. 64 p. (CEST rapid review report).
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Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
EPM210602v003 ESR
Question Submitted
June 22, 2021
Date Completed
June 3, 2022
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
Epidemiology & Modelling
to hospital emergency room, and outpatient medical visits were evaluated over a mid-term period of 6 months
Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
EPM210602v003 ESR
Question Submitted
June 22, 2021
Date Completed
June 3, 2022
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
Epidemiology & Modelling
Category
Clinical Presentation
Epidemiology
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Ambulatory
Community
Emergency
ICU
Long Term Care
Medicine Unit
Primary care
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 1 2-3 days
Cite As
Howell-Spooner, B. What are long COVID's demands on the healthcare system, and its severity of the illness? 2022 Jun 03, Document no.: EPM210602v003 ESR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2022. 22 p. (CEST rapid review report).
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EPM210602v002 RR
Question Submitted
June 22, 2021
Date Completed
June 20, 2022
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
Epidemiology & Modelling
, including emergency departments, hospital admissions, primary care visits, specialist appointments
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EPM210602v002 RR
Question Submitted
June 22, 2021
Date Completed
June 20, 2022
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
Epidemiology & Modelling
Updated Key Findings
June 17, 2022 Case Definition
A case definition for long COVID has yet to be adopted but is referred to by the WHO as “usually 3 months from the onset of COVID-19 with symptoms and that last for at least 2 months and cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis”; the CDC considers persistent symptoms, or the onset of long-term symptoms, =4 weeks after acute COVID-19 infection.
Many studies and systematic reviews refer to COVID-related symptoms that persist or emerge beyond 4 weeks of infection as consisting of two subsequent phases: 1) Ongoing Symptomatic COVID-19 (OSC; signs and symptoms from 4 to 12 weeks from initial infection) and 2) Post-COVID-19 Syndrome (PCS; signs and symptoms beyond 12 weeks) with respect to symptomatology, abnormal functioning, psychological burden, and quality of life.
Post Acute Sequalae of COVID (PASC) is often referred to in studies and systematic reviews and is commonly understood as “the presence of at least 1 abnormality diagnosed by (1) laboratory investigation, (2) radiologic pathology, or (3) clinical signs and symptoms that were present at least 1 month after COVID-19 diagnosis or after discharge from the hospital”. It can be further classified as short-term PASC as 1 month; intermediate-term, 2 to 5 months; and long-term, as 6 or more months after COVID-19 diagnosis or hospital discharge.
In previous reviews, we have referred to “long COVID” synonymously to the above terms (ie. OSC, PCS, PASC) but for clarity, will move toward using these specific terms as they appear in the literature as well as simply using the time frames reported in each study/review. For example, where needed, we have replaced “long COVID” with the more concise “PASC” or “symptoms beyond 4 weeks of infection”. General
Recommendations set out in our 2021 report can be relied upon with an important update to follow-up times (previously 2-3 months). Now, a 4-week follow-up is recommended for diagnosing and managing any PASC, especially for patients who suffered severe acute COVID-19 manifestation, where severe typically refers to those requiring medical attention, such as hospitalization for respiratory difficulty, to manage symptoms during the acute phase. In addition, these follow-ups should include mental health assessments in addition to any relevant clinical testing in response to each patient’s specific symptoms.
The clinical care burden of ongoing COVID-19 symptoms (OCS) is significant in the 3 months after infection and can place great demands on primary care services. Both OSC and PCS have consistently been shown to affect a large portion of the population with complex and persistent challenges that will also place strain on healthcare systems. This involves: o Complications pertaining to multiple care specialties, with 20-75% of individuals reporting at least 1 persistent symptom 12 or more weeks following COVID-19 diagnosis. o Neuropsychiatric manifestations (or “NeuroCOVID”) such as smell/taste disorder, memory complaints, anxiety, depression, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), concentration difficulties, and sleep disturbances are reported in 20-50% of individuals beyond 4 weeks from infection.
Functional disabilities and incapacity to return to work has been reported in 5% to 90% of individuals, where some are unable to reach their pre-COVID employment level at 12 weeks or longer post-infection; this has the potential to impact all sectors, including various levels of healthcare.
A significant number of individuals suffer from severe clinical conditions, such as acute cardiac, lung, and kidney injury.
A key focus will be to support individuals and populations who experience other persistent yet less severe conditions and symptoms such as fatigue, dyspnea, and mental health challenges including depression, anxiety, and sleep disorders.
Key Findings
July 12, 2021
Long COVID-19 is likely to increase demands across the health system, including emergency departments, hospital admissions, primary care visits, specialist appointments, and home care and rehabilitation services.
The clinical care burden of long COVID-19 is the greatest in the first 3 months after infection (revised from ‘testing’ in the previous report) and is likely to place the greatest demand on primary care services.
Patients with severe COVID-19 illness are more likely to place longer-term demands (4-6 months after the infection) on specialist care due to respiratory, circulatory, endocrine, metabolic, psychiatric and unspecified conditions.
Category
Clinical Presentation
Epidemiology
Subject
Long Covid
Health Planning
Clinical Presentation
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Ambulatory
Community
Emergency
ICU
Long Term Care
Medicine Unit
Primary care
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 1 2-3 days
Cite As
Groot, G; Reeder, B; Hammond, B; Badea, A; Howell-Spooner, B; Ellsworth, C. What are long COVID's demands on the healthcare system, and its severity of the illness? 2022 Jun 20, Document no.: EPM210602v002 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2022. 23 p. (CEST rapid review report).
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Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
CAC220101 ESR
Question Submitted
January 11, 2022
Date Completed
January 14, 2022
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Clinical/Acute Care
in the Home, and those only in emergency departments or ward types not routinely used for COVID-19 admissions
Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
CAC220101 ESR
Question Submitted
January 11, 2022
Date Completed
January 14, 2022
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Clinical/Acute Care
Category
Administration
Healthcare Services
Subject
Decision Making
Health Planning
Hospitalization
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Ambulatory
Cardiac unit
Community
Dialysis unit
Emergency
EMS
ICU
Long Term Care
Medicine Unit
NICU
Oncology
Primary care
Public Health
Other
Priority Level
Level 2 One week (7 days)
Cite As
Howell-Spooner, B; Young, C. What is the (case) definition of hospitalization for COVID-19 in similar? 2022 Jan 14. Document no.: CAC220101 ESR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2022. 13 p. (CEST rapid review report).
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Document Type
Table
Review Code
CAC220101 RR Table
Question Submitted
January 11, 2022
Date Completed
February 10, 2022
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Clinical/Acute Care
in the Home, and those only in emergency departments or ward types not routinely used for COVID-19 admission
Document Type
Table
Review Code
CAC220101 RR Table
Question Submitted
January 11, 2022
Date Completed
February 10, 2022
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Clinical/Acute Care
Category
Administration
Healthcare Services
Subject
Decision Making
Health Planning
Hospitalization
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Ambulatory
Cardiac unit
Community
Dialysis unit
Emergency
EMS
ICU
Long Term Care
Medicine Unit
NICU
Oncology
Primary care
Public Health
Other
Priority Level
Level 2 One week (7 days)
Cite As
Asamoah, G; Badea, A; Reeder, B; Groot, G; Muhajarine, N; Howell-Spooner, B; Young, C. What is the (case) definition of hospitalization for COVID-19 in similar jurisdictions? 2022 Feb 10. Document no.: CAC220101 RR Table. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2022. (CEST Table).
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CAC220101 RR Table

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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
CAC220101 RR
Question Submitted
January 11, 2022
Date Completed
February 10, 2022
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Clinical/Acute Care
the disease, and confirmed cases in an intensive care unit (ICU). But emergency room visits are excluded
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
CAC220101 RR
Question Submitted
January 11, 2022
Date Completed
February 10, 2022
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Clinical/Acute Care
Key Findings
January 26, 2022
There exists some ambiguity across jurisdictions and thus there is no clear universal case definition of COVID-19 hospitalization.
Public Health Ontario measures hospitalization as “the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases that reported ever being hospitalized during their infection”- i.e., all cases reported as ever being hospitalized during their infection.
The category “incidental COVID-19 hospitalizations” has been proposed. This refers to patients who are primarily admitted for other ailments and test positive as part of routine screening.
Some jurisdictions and health agencies have started differentiating between those who were admitted for COVID-19-related illness and incidental admissions. Ontario and Saskatchewan have begun using this category in their regular reporting of COVID-19 statistics.
New data from Australia, New Zealand, the US, and Canada indicate that 30 to 50 percent of COVID-19 hospitalizations are “incidental COVID-19 hospitalization” – 46% of COVID-19 hospitalizations in Ontario (as of January 11th, 2022) and 40% in Saskatchewan (as of January 26th, 2022)
Some expert opinions caution that such binary categorization may oversimplify clinical reality, and suggests also employing an ‘indeterminate’ category
Category
Administration
Healthcare Services
Subject
Decision Making
Health Planning
Hospitalization
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Ambulatory
Cardiac unit
Community
Dialysis unit
Emergency
EMS
ICU
Long Term Care
Medicine Unit
NICU
Oncology
Primary care
Public Health
Other
Priority Level
Level 2 One week (7 days)
Cite As
Asamoah, G; Badea, A; Reeder, B; Groot, G; Muhajarine, N; Howell-Spooner, B; Young, C. What is the (case) definition of hospitalization for COVID-19 in similar jurisdictions? 2022 Feb 10. Document no.: CAC220101 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2022. 9 p. (CEST rapid review report).
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Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
EOC071001-01 ESR
Question Submitted
July 10, 2020
Date Completed
July 10, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
on incubation period infection. METHODS: We collected the required data from "Public Health Emergency
Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
EOC071001-01 ESR
Question Submitted
July 10, 2020
Date Completed
July 10, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
EOC
Category
Administration
Epidemiology
Subject
Disease Outbreak
Public Health
Health Planning
Decision Making
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Community
Emergency
Long Term Care
Other
All acute care.
Priority Level
Level 5 completed within 2 weeks
Cite As
Ellsworth, C; Young, C. What is the definition of an outbreak versus a cluster for COVID-19 in different clinical and community settings in Canada, the US, and the UK? 2020 Jul 10; Document no.: EOC071001-01 ESR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 9 p. (CEST evidence search report)
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13 records – page 1 of 2.