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Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
LTC042201-01 ESR
Question Submitted
April 22, 2020
Date Completed
24-Apr-2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Long Term Care
QUESTION: What human resources are required in long term care facilities to mitigate or control an ILI
Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
LTC042201-01 ESR
Question Submitted
April 22, 2020
Date Completed
24-Apr-2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Long Term Care
Category
Administration
Infection Prevention and Control
Subject
Facilities
Health Planning
Long Term Care
Elderly
Population
Aged (80+)
Other
Clinical Setting
Long Term Care
Priority Level
Level 3 completed within 2-3 days
Cite As
Tupper, S; Ward, H; Dalidowicz, M; Boden, C; Ellsworth, C; How can LTC facilities prepare for a pandemic? 2020 Apr 29; Document no.: LTC042201 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 27 p. (CEST evidence search report)
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
LTC042201 RR
Question Submitted
April 22, 2020
Date Completed
April 29, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Long Term Care
document includes pandemic planning checklists for long-term care homes (LTC) and personal care homes
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
LTC042201 RR
Question Submitted
April 22, 2020
Date Completed
April 29, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Long Term Care
Key Findings
· Overall, there is a lack of high quality evidence to support recommended pandemic preparedness strategies (checklist items) to prevent or mitigate respiratory infection outbreaks in LTC. · In the absence of high-quality or mixed evidence to support strategies for pandemic preparedness, it is advisable to follow clinical practice guideline recommendations that have been based on expert opinion (key sources are identified in red). This is particularly the case for infection control interventions that are likely to have no negative impacts on LTC residents (e.g. hand hygiene, cough etiquette). Strategies that have a potential negative impact on LTC residents (e.g. visitor restrictions) must be handled with more flexibility and individual assessment to determine how infection control can be preserved while minimizing negative consequences for residents and families. · Internationally recognized pandemic/outbreak preparedness checklists for LTC (e.g. CDC 2020, Buynder et al. 2017) share many similarities to the current SHA Annex R checklists. · Consideration should be given to converting the checklist into a planner with accountabilities to demonstrate how each item is being addressed (similar to CDC 2020). Links can be embedded in the planner/checklist to more detailed information, such as the PPE burn calculator (CDC 2020), education/training materials (WHO 2020), and communication materials for families (CDC 2020, WHO 2020, Buynder et al. 2017). · Consider the addition of specific detail to the SHA pandemic preparedness checklists on the date of the next pandemic plan/checklist review, contact names for local resource acquisition or assistance with staffing, tracking forms for dates of education/training with staff and residents, tracking of audits/observation of infection control practices, surge capacity planning items, and expanded items for communication (see attached recommendations from family caregivers of the Saskatchewan LTC Network). · Discrepancies exist between reported (77-100%) and observed (25-63%) adherence to infection control practices, indicating a need for independent audits. Adherence rates improve with direct observation, frequent education reminders and prompts. · Even when there is not an outbreak in a home, the pandemic response results in increased workload demands on staff due to infection control practices (e.g. PPE and hand hygiene), loss of family caregiver assistance with resident care, enhanced care needs of residents due to anxiety, increased communication with family caregivers and other members of the care team, monitoring and restricting resident movement in the home, enhanced cleaning, staff absenteeism, and education/training. Consideration is needed for a provincial process for evaluation of needs within individual homes, and allocation of additional human resources, disposable supplies, equipment, or funding to ensure that both infection control and usual care needs of residents are consistently met. · Maintaining public confidence through communication is a defined infection control strategy. Communication strategies include individual communication between family members and staff, public communication strategies by individual facilities and provincially through dedicated pandemic information pertaining to LTC (e.g. dedicated LTC section on provincial websites).
Category
Administration
Infection Prevention and Control
Subject
Facilities
Health Planning
Long Term Care
Elderly
Population
Aged (80+)
Other
Clinical Setting
Long Term Care
Priority Level
Level 3 completed within 2-3 days
Cite As
Tupper, S; Ward, H; Dalidowicz, M; Boden, C; Ellsworth, C; How can LTC facilities prepare for a pandemic? 2020 Apr 29; Document no.: LTC042201 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 27 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
LTC042402-01 ESR
Question Submitted
April 24, 2020
Date Completed
April 28, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Long Term Care
Recommendations Saskatoon Ministry of Health. Outbreaks in Long Term Care and Integrated Facilities - Generic
Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
LTC042402-01 ESR
Question Submitted
April 24, 2020
Date Completed
April 28, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Long Term Care
Category
Administration
Healthcare Services
Subject
Facilities
Long Term Care
Palliative Care
Infection Prevention and Control
Family
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Cardiac unit
Emergency
ICU
Long Term Care
Medicine Unit
NICU
Oncology
Priority Level
Level 4 completed within 1 week
Cite As
Howell-Spooner, B; Dalidowicz, M; Boden, C. How is "compassionate visit" defined and operationalized in the context of an infectious outbreak or pandemic? 2020 Apr 28; Document no.: LTC042402-01 ESR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 7 p. (CEST evidence search report)
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
LTC042402 RR
Question Submitted
April 24, 2020
Date Completed
April 30, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Long Term Care
restrictions in long-term care (LTC) during an outbreak or pandemic are implemented due to the perceived risk
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
LTC042402 RR
Question Submitted
April 24, 2020
Date Completed
April 30, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Long Term Care
Key Findings
Visitor restrictions in long-term care (LTC) during an outbreak or pandemic are implemented due to the perceived risk of transmission between residents or staff and visitors. · Social isolation and possible loss of care resulting from visitor restrictions in LTC may place residents at risk of poorer outcomes in terms of both physical and mental health, as well as distress to families and staff (see Saskatchewan LTC Network Family Perspective). · Visitor restriction policies typically allow visits for compassionate reasons that include end of life, critical care, and support of persons who require assistance beyond that provided by healthcare e.g. support for feeding, mobility, or behaviors, but specific detail on these is not consistent or clear. · Recent changes to visitation policies in Australia are less restrictive and allow brief visitations (end of table 1, noted in red font). · Although the majority of policies describe a need for flexibility and case-by-case assessment of visits deemed “essential”, the majority of policies are not clear in who is to conduct this analysis or the criteria that should be used to make these decisions. Visitation policies differ in detail regarding the number of visitors allowed at one time, total number of visitors allowed, visit duration, mobility within the home and location of the visit. · Remote and technology assisted visits are to be facilitated by LTC staff. · Infection control practices are enforced for visitors, and may include screening (e.g. temperature, symptoms, travel and contact history), prohibiting ill visitors, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), hand and cough hygiene. · Education of visitors and support for proper infection control practices is encouraged in the majority of policies.
Category
Administration
Healthcare Services
Subject
Facilities
Long Term Care
Palliative Care
Infection Prevention and Control
Family
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Cardiac unit
Emergency
ICU
Long Term Care
Medicine Unit
NICU
Oncology
Priority Level
Level 4 completed within 1 week
Cite As
Tupper, S; Ward, H; Howell-Spooner, B; Dalidowicz, M; Boden, C. How is "compassionate visit" defined and operationalized in the context of an infectious outbreak or pandemic in long-term care? 2020 May 1; Document no.: LTC042402 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 17 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
EOC021901v2 ESR
Question Submitted
February 19, 2021
Date Completed
October 21, 2021
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
EOC021901v2 ESR
Question Submitted
February 19, 2021
Date Completed
October 21, 2021
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
EOC
Category
Healthcare Services
Clinical Presentation
Subject
Long Covid
Clinical Presentation
Health Planning
Symptoms
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Ambulatory
Long Term Care
Primary care
Priority Level
Level 5 Four weeks+ (28 days+)
Cite As
Mueller, M; Dalidowicz, M. Long COVID: What does it mean for the healthcare system and programs to? 2021 Oct 21, Document no.: EOC021901v2 ESR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2021. 70 p. (CEST rapid review report).
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Document Type
Table
Review Code
EOC021901v2 RR Table
Question Submitted
February 19, 2021
Date Completed
October 29, 2021
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Table
Review Code
EOC021901v2 RR Table
Question Submitted
February 19, 2021
Date Completed
October 29, 2021
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
EOC
Category
Healthcare Services
Clinical Presentation
Subject
Long Covid
Clinical Presentation
Health Planning
Symptoms
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Ambulatory
Long Term Care
Primary care
Priority Level
Level 5 Four weeks+ (28 days+)
Cite As
Williams-Roberts, H; Groot, G; Mueller, M; Dalidowicz, M. Long COVID: What does it mean for the healthcare system and programs? 2021 Oct 29. Document no.: EOC021901v2 RR Table. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2021. (CEST Table).
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EOC021901v2 RR Table

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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC021901v2 RR
Question Submitted
February 19, 2021
Date Completed
October 29, 2021
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
EOC
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
EOC021901v2 RR
Question Submitted
February 19, 2021
Date Completed
October 29, 2021
Status
5. Updated review
Research Team
EOC
Updated Key Findings
October 29, 2021
In October, WHO released a consensus definition of post COVID-19 condition that includes 12 domains. This development should lead to better standardization of reporting and contribute to more precise prevalence estimates and better understanding of associated risk factors.
The effects of Variants of Concern (VoC) and COVID vaccination on progression of Long COVID symptoms remains unclear.
Risk factors for developing Long COVID symptoms were similar but limited evidence suggests that pre-pandemic psychological distress and poor general health were associated with developing persistent symptoms. Evidence is too limited to determine whether vaccination reduces the risk of developing Long COVID among persons with breakthrough infections.
Given the protean manifestations of Long COVID symptoms, the underlying causes are likely multifactorial; however, strong evidence to substantiate the theories of causation remains limited.
Research related to longer-term consequences of SARS CoV-2 infections in pediatric populations is growing but remains limited.
Key Findings
March 15, 2021
There is a lack of consensus around the clinical definition of Long COVID which in turn causes challenges with understanding the incidence and prevalence as well as the potential impact for the health care system
Information about the natural history of Long COVID is incomplete but limited evidence suggests that the immune response trajectories differ for those with few or no symptoms compared to those with severe disease. Individuals with severe disease are more likely to exhibit immunological marker abnormalities but anyone can experience functional limitations.
The mechanisms underlying the development of persistent symptoms in Long COVID remain an enigma. Despite multiple theories, there is little empirical evidence for specific immunological and or biochemical abnormalities in samples of individuals with symptoms consistent with Long COVID.
Risk factors for Long COVID include female gender, older age, higher body mass index, pre-existing asthma and the number of symptoms.
Few studies explored the short-term impact of Long COVID on health care utilization patterns and found a higher impact for those with severe disease compared with mild disease.
Category
Healthcare Services
Clinical Presentation
Subject
Long Covid
Clinical Presentation
Health Planning
Symptoms
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Ambulatory
Long Term Care
Primary care
Priority Level
Level 5 Four weeks+ (28 days+)
Cite As
Williams-Roberts, H; Groot, G; Mueller, M; Dalidowicz, M. Long COVID: What does it mean for the healthcare system and programs? 2021 Oct 29. Document no.: EOC021901v2 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2021. 14 p. (CEST rapid review report).
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Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
LTC042401-01 ESR
Question Submitted
April 24, 2020
Date Completed
April 30, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Long Term Care
for COVID-19: Interim Guidance for Long Term Care Homes https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services
Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
LTC042401-01 ESR
Question Submitted
April 24, 2020
Date Completed
April 30, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Long Term Care
Category
Administration
Subject
Facilities
Decision Making
Family
Long Term Care
Population
All
Clinical Setting
ICU
Long Term Care
Medicine Unit
NICU
Oncology
Priority Level
Level 4 completed within 1 week
Cite As
Boden, C; Ellsworth, C. What are best practices for engaging family care providers during a pandemic? 2020 Apr 30; Document no.: LTC042401-01 ESR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 32 p. (CEST evidence search report)
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Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
LTC042401 RR
Question Submitted
April 24, 2020
Date Completed
May 7, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Long Term Care
health facilities and senior’s care facilities including long-term care homes. Saskatchewan currently
Document Type
Rapid Review
Review Code
LTC042401 RR
Question Submitted
April 24, 2020
Date Completed
May 7, 2020
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Long Term Care
Key Findings
Core concepts of family engagement include dignity and respect, information sharing, participation in care and decision making, and collaboration (Hart 2020).
A careful balance needs to be maintained between attending to patients’ physical and psychological needs and adhering to infection control guidelines, while offering psychological support to family members (Chan 2006).
The word ‘visitation’ does not adequately describe family members’ involvement. Family presence is a more suitable term as it redefines families as partners in care (Hart 2020). However, it is important to recognize that family presence is not a substitute for adequate staffing levels.
Very little guidance is provided in the literature on innovative or specific approaches engage family care providers during a pandemic. The literature mainly focuses on supporting alternate forms of communication such as telephone calls, or technology assisted communication through social media or video/voice calls.
Enhanced communication strategies that provide regular information to a primary family contact on the patient/resident condition and allow chosen care partners to contribute to decision making as much as possible are recommended (Koller 2006).
The negative impact of visitation restrictions places increased stress on patients/residents and families who are unable to provide or receive non-healthcare specific supportive care. Those with neurocognitive disorders or communication barriers are more significantly impacted.
Staff also report increased stress during family visitation restrictions due to the additional time required to take on a “familial role” for the patient/resident. These roles may include providing a supportive environment, social interaction, information sharing, and opportunities for play (Koller 2006a – pediatric hospital setting).
The search question did not specifically look at impact of visitation on infection rates; therefore, there is insufficient information to determine if visitation policies affect infection rates. However, a systematic review in pediatric hospital setting in Ontario found no connection between liberal visiting hours and increased SARS infection rates (Smith 2009).
When facilitating sibling visitation in the NICU, a pre-visit education process is recommended. Maternity settings may wish to consider a 'combination' policy, where the women's partners and/or significant other would have open visiting (all day), with restricted visiting for others. In other general hospital ward settings, open visiting with a 'quiet hour' is suggested (Smith 2009).
Category
Administration
Subject
Facilities
Decision Making
Family
Long Term Care
Population
All
Clinical Setting
ICU
Long Term Care
Medicine Unit
NICU
Oncology
Priority Level
Level 4 completed within 1 week
Cite As
Tupper, S; Ward, H; Dalidowicz, M; Boden, C; Ellsworth, C; What are best practices for engaging family care providers during a pandemic? 2020 Apr 16; Document no.: LTC042401 RR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2020. 22 p. (CEST rapid review report)
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Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
EPM210602 ESR
Question Submitted
June 22, 2021
Date Completed
June 25, 2021
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Epidemiology & Modelling
millions worldwide, leaving a global burden for long-term care of COVID-19 survivors. It is thus
Document Type
Evidence Search Report
Review Code
EPM210602 ESR
Question Submitted
June 22, 2021
Date Completed
June 25, 2021
Status
3. Completed
Research Team
Epidemiology & Modelling
Category
Clinical Presentation
Epidemiology
Subject
Long Covid
Health Planning
Clinical Presentation
Population
All
Clinical Setting
Ambulatory
Community
Emergency
ICU
Long Term Care
Medicine Unit
Primary care
Public Health
Priority Level
Level 1 2-3 days
Cite As
Howell-Spooner, B; Ellsworth, E. What are long COVID's demands on the healthcare system, and it? 2021 Jun 25, Document no.: EPM210602 ESR. In: COVID-19 Rapid Evidence Reviews [Internet]. SK: SK COVID Evidence Support Team, c2021. 64 p. (CEST rapid review report).
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43 records – page 1 of 5.